FUTURE TENSE/BE GOING TO

Simple Future has two different forms in English: “will” and “be going to.” Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both “will” and “be going to” refer to a specific time in the future.

FORM: (WILL)
• (+) S + SHALL/WILL + V-1 + O
• (- ) S + SHALL/WILL + NOT + V-1 + O
• (?) SALL/WILL + S + V-1 + O

FORM: (BE GOING TO)
[am/is/are + going to + verb]

The use of SHALL with I and We to express future time is possible, but uncommon in America English. Shall is used much more frequently in British than American English.
Adverb Of time : Tomorrow, Tonight, Next week, next Monday, etc…

USE 1 “Will” to Express a Voluntary Action
“Will” often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use “will” to respond to someone elses complaint or request for help. We also use “will” when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use “will not” or “won’t” when we refuse to voluntarily do something.
Examples:
• I will send you the information when I get it.
• I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
• Will you help me move this heavy table?
• Will you make dinner?

USE 2 “Will” to Express a Promise
“Will” is usually used in promises.
Examples:
• I will call you when I arrive.
• If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
• I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.

USE 3 “Be going to” to Express a Plan
“Be going to” expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.
Examples:
• He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
• She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
• A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
• I’m going to be an actor when I grow up.
• Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.

USE 4 “Will” or “Be Going to” to Express a Prediction
Both “will” and “be going to” can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In “prediction” sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
Examples:
• John Smith will be the next President.
• John Smith is going to be the next President.
• The movie “Zenith” will win several Academy Awards.
• The movie “Zenith” is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT
In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence’s meaning.
No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future,Simple Present is used.
Examples:
• When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
• When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct

EXERCISE:
• Change the following sentences into Positive, Negative, and interrogative forms of Future Tense
1. Ms. Weni and Ms. Asyab (spend) their Holiday in Australia next Summer
2. My classmates (attend) English speech contest at SMU Makedonia next Saturday.
3. They (order) some new machines for the new factory from Japan next year.
4. The postman (deliver) my letter from my friend in Pontianak tomorrow morning.
5. The train (leave) the station in ten minutes.

• Complete this sentence with will or be going to.
1. I am staying at home. I … have an early night
2. I am going to the bookstore. I … buy an English book.
3. We hope that we … be late for meeting. (negative)
4. I … lend it to him if he needs it.
5. We think he … win the first prize.
6. What’s for dinner! I … fry some fish.
7. The bell is ringing. I … go and open the door.
8. He needs a doctor. I … call 911.
9. The paper say it … rain tomorrow.
10. Tomorrow we … go to Ancol. We already talked about it yesterday.

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